To ask somebody how he or she is, there are two different ways in German:

Formally: Wie geht es Ihnen? – How are you?
Informally: Wie geht es dir? – How are you?

In many languages the verb ending changes according to who is doing the action. The patterns of the verb have to be learned.
Let’s look at the verb heißen:

ich heiße my name is (literally: I am called)
du heißt your name is (informal)
Sie heißen your name is (formal)

Note that in heißen we have the letter ß (called Eszett) which represents a special form of the letters ss. It is pronounced the same way as an s.

Ich heiße Matthias Meisinger. – My name is Matthias Meisinger.

er heißt – his name is
sie heißt – her name is
Wie heißt du? – What’s your name? (informal)
Wie heißen Sie? – What’s your name? (formal)

Let’s look at the verb kommen (to come):

kommen – to come
ich komme
– I come
du kommst
– you come (informal)
Sie kommen
– you come (formal)
er kommt
– he comes
sie kommt
– she comes

There are different ways of saying “you.” If you’re talking to a relative or good friend, use the familiar form du. If you’re talking to an adult whom you don’t know well (e.g., with your boss) you use the formal Sie.

Formal: Wie heißen Sie? – What’s your name?
Informal: Wie heißt du? – What’s your name?

Note that the formal Sie is written with a capital letter.
Mr. Meisinger and Mr. Buschel have just met for the first time. They are using Sie.

In order to ask where somebody is from you would say:

woher? – where from?
Woher kommen Sie? – Where do you come from?

For the answer you use the word aus (from).

Ich komme aus Deutschland. – I’m from Germany.

Note that in order to say “from the USA” you say aus den USA. Similarly, for Turkey, Switzerland, and the Netherlands, you say aus der Türkei, aus der Schweiz, aus den Niederlanden.

In order to greet other people you use the following phrases:
Until about 10:00 a.m. you say: Guten Morgen! – Good morning!

After 10:00 a.m. you say: Guten Tag! – Hello! (literally: Good day!)

After 5:00 p.m. you say: Guten Abend! – Good evening!

It is also very common just to say: Hallo! – Hi!

Guten Morgen Herr Meisinger! – Good morning, Mr. Meisinger.
Guten Tag Frau Müller! – Hello, Mrs. Müller.
Guten Abend alle zusammen! – Good evening, everyone.

There are different ways to say “goodbye” in German. Which expression you use depends on the region.
The most common ones are:

Formal: Auf Wiedersehen – Goodbye
Informal: Tschüss – Bye

These two expressions can be used everywhere.

In lesson 1 you learned about the verb kommen (to come).
Most verbs follow this same pattern. Here are some examples: trinken (to drink), gehen (to go, to walk), spielen (to play), singen (to sing), fragen (to ask), machen (to do, to make)

Ich trinke Kaffee. – I drink coffee.
Du trinkst Kaffee. – You drink coffee.
Er trinkt Kaffee. – He drinks coffee.
Sie trinkt Kaffee. – She drinks coffee.

wie? – how
Wie heißen Sie? – What is your name?
Wie geht es Ihnen? – How are you?
Wie geht es dir? – How are you?

was? – what?
Was trinken Sie? – What are you drinking?

wo? – where?
Wo spielt er? – Where is he playing?

The subject of a sentence is usually a person or a thing performing the action shown by the verb.

Ich fliege nach Deutschland.I am flying to Germany.

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